Dentistry is the area of dentistry that aims to restore or improve aesthetics and dental function.
In recent years, restorative dentistry has undergone remarkable development due to the appearance of new technologies and new dental materials, which allow dentists to restore teeth conservatively with excellent esthetic results.
- teeth with caries lesion
- fracture treatment
- replacement of damaged and infiltrated old restorations
- replacement of unsightly amalgam fillings
- closure of spaces between teeth (diastemas)
- changes in dental morphology and positioning
- smile matching
- simulations of the final pre-treatment result
What is tooth decay?
Bacteria found in the oral cavity transform food waste into acids which, formed by a fermentation process, attack the mineralized tissues of the tooth.
What helps the development of caries?
Poor toothbrushing leads to the accumulation of food debris on the surface of the teeth, helping bacteria to adhere to them, forming plaque or bacterial biofilm. It provides the ideal environment for bacteria to transform the sugar in food into acid, demineralizing the tooth enamel creating a cavity, which is the decay itself.
Fluoride can inhibit the formation of caries. However, it should be used sparingly due to its toxicity.
Caries can affect:
- enamel – no symptoms;
- dentin – there is sensitivity;
- dental pulp – pulpitis (intense and acute pain).
Clinical and radiological diagnosis stands out as a means of caries detection.
How to prevent tooth decay?
To prevent tooth decay, the following should be taken into account:
- Good hygiene (correct tooth brushing and flossing)
- Balanced diet (reduction of sugar intake)
- Use of fluoride ( Pediatric Dentistry )
- Application of sealants ( Pediatric Dentistry )
How to treat tooth decay?
When caries affect only the enamel and dentin, the treatment consists of eliminating the structure of the affected tooth and rebuilding it. Removal of carious tissue can be performed using rotary instruments as well as by laser.
Thus, dental caries influences the individual’s general health by decreasing the masticatory function, altering facial development and aesthetics, causing phonetic disturbances, causing pain, and originating infectious complications with local and general repercussions.
Restorative Materials – Composite resins (composites)
Composites are synthetic resins consisting of a resin matrix and a filler of inorganic particles. They also have several substances incorporated to improve the effectiveness and durability of the material and contain fundamental pigments to approach the color of dental structures.
This restorative material has good strength, easy handling, good adaptation to the tooth cavity walls, is durable, and highly aesthetic. The aesthetic characteristics of composites are given by the wide range of dental shades available on the market, which simulates the natural attributes of teeth such as color, texture, shine, fluorescence, and transparency.
Unlike amalgam restorations, composite restorations allow less removal of tooth structure, as they do not require physical retention, bonding to dental tissues by chemical adhesion. On the other hand, they enable performing anatomy similar to the original physical integrity.
There are several types of composites, which are used as needed. In particular, depending on the location of the tooth to be restored, you can choose a more resistant composite (posterior teeth) or composites with better aesthetic characteristics (anterior teeth).
Restorative Materials -Ceramic restorations (inlay or onlay) – Cad-Cam system
These are indirect restorations carried out in the laboratory and cemented after the tooth.
The inlay/onlay features good resistance to mastication forces, manufacturing precision, marginal integrity, protection against recurrent caries, and easy cleaning, making it a great alternative to direct composite restorations.
Using CAD/CAM technology, it is possible to perform and cement an inlay/only on the same day.
Restorative Materials – Amalgam Restorations
Restorative material is constituted by the junction of a metallic alloy and mercury. Although it is very wear-resistant, it has the disadvantage of being unsightly.